What is new in Ring 1.5?

In this chapter we will learn about the changes and new features in Ring 1.5 release.

List of changes and new features

Ring 1.5 comes with many new features!

  • Video-Music-Player Application
  • Windows StartUp Manager Application
  • Calculator Application
  • Better Ring Notepad
  • Better StdLib
  • Better WebLib
  • Better RingQt
  • Better Objects Library
  • RingFreeGLUT Extension
  • RingOpenGL Extension
  • Better Code Generator for Extensions
  • Better Documentation Generator for Extensions
  • Ring VM - Tracing Functions
  • Trace Library and Interactive Debugger
  • More Syntax Flexibility
  • Type Hints Library
  • Better Quality

Video-Music-Player Application

The Video-Music-Player application is added to the Applications folder.

Screen Shot:

Video Music Player

Windows StartUp Manager Application

The Windows StartUp Manager

URL : https://github.com/ring-lang/WinStartupManager

Screen Shot:

Windows Startup Manager

Calculator Application

The Calculator application is added to the Applications folder.

Screen Shot:

Calculator Application

Better Ring Notepad

  1. Ring Notepad is updated to include some new styles and the Main File ToolBar

The idea of the Main File ToolBar is to determine the main file in the project When the project contains many source code files

This way you can run the project ( Main File ) at any time while opening other files in the project without the need to switch to the Main File to run the project.

To quickly use this feature

(Open the project main file)

Press Ctrl+Shift+M to set the current source code file as the main file

Open and modify other source code files in the project

To run the project (Main File) at any time press Ctrl+Shift+F5 (GUI) or Ctrl+Shift+D (Console)

Screen Shots:

Ring Notepad Ring Notepad Ring Notepad
  1. The output window is updated to display the new lines correctly and contains the “Clear” button.

Screen Shot:

Output Window

(3) The Ring Notepad is updated to quickly open and switch between large files while preparing the functions/classes lists in the background.

Screen Shot:

Ring Notepad - Large Files

Better StdLib

New Functions

  • Print2Str()
  • ListAllFiles()
  • SystemCmd()
  1. The Print2Str() is a new function added to the StdLib

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"

world = "World!"
mystring = print2str("Hello, #{world} \nIn Year \n#{2000+17} \n")

see mystring + nl

Output:

Hello, World!
In Year
2017
  1. The ListAllFiles() is a new function added to the StdLib

Using this function we can quickly do a process on a group of files in a folder and it’s sub folders.

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"
aList = ListAllFiles("c:/ring/ringlibs","ring") # *.ring only
aList = sort(aList)
see aList

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"
see listallfiles("b:/ring/ringlibs/weblib","") # All Files
  1. The SystemCmd() is a new function added to the StdLib

The function will execute a system command like the System() function but will return the output in a string.

Example:

cYou = SystemCmd("whoami")
See "SystemCmd: whoami ====="+ nl + cYou +nl

Output:

SystemCmd: whoami =====
desktop-umberto\umberto

Better WebLib

The WebLib is updated to include the HTMLPage class

Using this class we can create HTML documents without printing the output to the standard output

So instead of using the WebLib in Web Applications only

We can use it in Console/GUI/Mobile Applications too

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"
load "weblib.ring"

import System.Web

func main

        mypage = new HtmlPage {
                h1 { text("Customers Report") }
                Table
                {
                          style = stylewidth("100%") + stylegradient(4)
                          TR
                          {
                                TD { WIDTH="10%" text("Customers Count : " )  }
                                TD { text (100) }
                          }
                }

                Table
                {
                          style = stylewidth("100%") + stylegradient(26)
                          TR
                          {
                                style = stylewidth("100%") + stylegradient(24)
                                TD { text("Name " )  }
                                TD { text("Age" ) }
                                TD { text("Country" ) }
                                TD { text("Job" ) }
                                TD { text("Company" ) }
                          }
                          for x =  1 to 100
                                TR
                                {
                                        TD { text("Test" )  }
                                        TD { text("30" ) }
                                        TD { text("Egypt" ) }
                                        TD { text("Sales" ) }
                                        TD { text("Future" ) }
                                }
                          next
                }

        }

        write("report.html",mypage.output())

Using this feature we can create reports quickly using WebLib & GUILib together

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"
load "weblib.ring"
load "guilib.ring"

import System.Web
import System.GUI

new qApp {
        open_window(:CustomersReportController)
        exec()
}

class CustomersReportController

        oView = new CustomersReportView

        func Start
                CreateReport()

        func CreateReport
                mypage = new HtmlPage {
                        h1 { text("Customers Report") }
                        Table
                        {
                                style = stylewidth("100%") + stylegradient(4)
                                TR
                                {
                                        TD { WIDTH="10%"
                                                text("Customers Count : " )  }
                                        TD { text (100) }
                                }
                        }
                        Table
                        {
                                style = stylewidth("100%") + stylegradient(26)
                                TR
                                {
                                        style = stylewidth("100%") +
                                                stylegradient(24)
                                        TD { text("Name " )  }
                                        TD { text("Age" ) }
                                        TD { text("Country" ) }
                                        TD { text("Job" ) }
                                        TD { text("Company" ) }
                                }
                                for x =  1 to 100
                                        TR
                                        {
                                                TD { text("Test" )  }
                                                TD { text("30" ) }
                                                TD { text("Egypt" ) }
                                                TD { text("Sales" ) }
                                                TD { text("Future" ) }
                                        }
                                next
                        }
                }
                write("report.html",mypage.output())

        func PrintEvent
                printer1 = new qPrinter(0) {
                        setoutputformat(1)
                        setoutputfilename("report.pdf")
                }
                oView {
                        web.print(printer1)
                        web.show()
                }
                system ("report.pdf")

class CustomersReportView

                win = new window() {
                                setwindowtitle("Report Window")
                                setgeometry(100,100,500,500)
                                web = new webview(win) {
                                        setgeometry(100,100,1000,500)
                                        loadpage(new qurl("file:///"+
                                        currentdir()+"/report.html"))
                                }
                                new pushbutton(win) {
                                                setGeometry(100,20,100,30)
                                                settext("Print")
                                                setclickevent(Method(:PrintEvent))
                                }
                                showMaximized()
                        }

Screen Shot:

Customers Report

Better RingQt

New classes added to RingQt :

  • QStringRef
  • QMutex
  • QMutexLocker
  • QBuffer
  • QBluetoothAddress
  • QBluetoothDeviceDiscoveryAgent
  • QBluetoothDeviceInfo
  • QBluetoothHostInfo
  • QBluetoothLocalDevice
  • QBluetoothServer
  • QBluetoothServiceDiscoveryAgent
  • QBluetoothServiceInfo
  • QBluetoothSocket
  • QBluetoothTransferManager
  • QBluetoothTransferReply
  • QBluetoothTransferRequest
  • QBluetoothUuid

Example:

### Submits your car VIN - Vehicle Id Number - to the Web Site - vpic.nhtsa.dot.gov -
### Parses XML data returned
### Prints out the car info result

load "libcurl.ring"
load "guilib.ring"
load "stdlib.ring"

curl = curl_easy_init()

# request = "3G1JC5248YS251015?format=xml"  ### VIN - Chevrolet
  request = "3GYFK62847G247323?format=xml"  ### VIN - Cadillac

call_type   = "decodevinvalues/"
url         = "https://vpic.nhtsa.dot.gov/api/vehicles/"
url_request = url + call_type + request

        See "URL Request: "+ url_request +nl

curl_easy_setopt(curl, curlopt_url, url_request)
response = curl_easy_perform_silent(curl);

        See nl +"Response Raw: "+ response +nl +nl

curl_easy_cleanup(curl)

xml = new qxmlstreamreader()
xml.adddata_2(response)

x = new qstringref()
while not xml.atend()
           if xml.error()
                           see xml.errorstring() see nl
                           exit loop
           ok

           x = xml.text()
           if not x.length() = 0
                           see "Length: " see x.length() +" --- "
                           see "Value: " see x.tostring() see nl
           ok

           xml.readnext()
end

get x

###------------------------------------------
### Results
#
# ==>Value: 115
# ==>Value: Results returned successfully
# ==>Value: VIN(s): 3G1JC5248YS251015
# ==>Value: 3G1JC5248YS251015
# ==>Value: Sedan/Saloon
# ==>Value: 4
# ==>Value: 2200.0
# ==>Value: 134.25223700841
# ==>Value: 2.2
# ==>Value: 4
# ==>Value: LN2
# ==>Value: CHEVROLET
# ==>Value: GENERAL MOTORS LLC
# ==>Value: Cavalier
# ==>Value: 2000
# ==>Value: Ramos Arzipe
# ==>Value: PASSENGER CAR
# ==>Value: 4
# ==>Value: In-Line
# ==>Value: 1st Row (Driver & Passenger)
# ==>Value: Sequential Fuel Injection (SFI)
# ==>Value: Mexico
# ==>Value: NA
# ==>Value: Manual
# ==>Value: Body Type: Sedan, 4-6 Window, Notchback (GM codes: 19, 69)
# ==>Value:  Name Plate: Chevrolet, Pontiac
# ==>Value: 0 - VIN decoded clean. Check Digit (9th position) is correct
# ==>Value: LAN
# ==>Value: 984
#
###-----------------------------------------

Better Objects Library

The function Open_WindowInPackages() is added to the Objects library.

The Open_WindowInPackages() function is the same as Open_Window() but takes an extra list that determine the packages to import before opening the window.

Syntax:

Open_WindowInPackages(cClassName,aPackagesList)

Example:

The next example from the Form Designer source code, Open the Window Flags window using the open_windowInPackages() function.

We determine the class name “WindowFlagsController” and the packages name.

The Window Flags window uses the FormDesigner and System.GUI packages.

open_windowInPackages(:WindowFlagsController,[
        "formdesigner",
        "System.GUI"
])

RingFreeGLUT Extension

Ring 1.5 comes with RingFreeGLUT extension to support the FreeGLUT library

Example:

/*
        This sample is based on C Tutorials
        from : http://www.lighthouse3d.com/tutorials/glut-tutorial/
*/

load "freeglut.ring"
load "opengl21lib.ring"


// angle of rotation for the camera direction
angle = 0.0

// actual vector representing the camera's direction
lx=0.0 lz=-1.0

// XZ position of the camera
x=0.0  z=5.0

// the key states. These variables will be zero
//when no key is being presses
deltaAngle = 0.0
deltaMove = 0
xOrigin = -1

// Constant definitions for Menus
C_RED  = 1
C_GREEN = 2
C_BLUE = 3
C_ORANGE = 4

C_FILL = 5
C_LINE = 6

// Pop up menu identifiers
fillMenu=NULL
fontMenu=NULL
mainMenu=NULL
colorMenu=NULL

// color for the nose
red = 1.0
blue=0.5
green=0.5

// scale of snowman
scale = 1.0

// menu status
menuFlag = 0

// default font
font = GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24

C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13 = 7
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15 = 8
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10  = 9
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24  = 10
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10  = 11
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12  = 12
C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18  = 13

// width and height of the window
h = 0
w = 0

// variables to compute frames per second
frame=0
time=0
timebase=0
s = ""

func changeSize
        w = glutEventWidth()
        h = glutEventHeight()

        // Prevent a divide by zero, when window is too short
        // (you cant make a window of zero width).
        if h = 0
                h = 1
        ok

        ratio =  w * 1.0 / h

        // Use the Projection Matrix
        glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION)

        // Reset Matrix
        glLoadIdentity()

        // Set the viewport to be the entire window
        glViewport(0, 0, w, h)

        // Set the correct perspective.
        gluPerspective(45.0, ratio, 0.1, 100.0)

        // Get Back to the Modelview
        glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW)

func drawSnowMan

        glScalef(scale, scale, scale)
        glColor3f(1.0, 1.0, 1.0)

// Draw Body
        glTranslatef(0.0 ,0.75, 0.0)
        glutSolidSphere(0.75,20,20)

// Draw Head
        glTranslatef(0.0, 1.0, 0.0)
        glutSolidSphere(0.25,20,20)

// Draw Eyes
        glPushMatrix()
        glColor3f(0.0,0.0,0.0)
        glTranslatef(0.05, 0.10, 0.18)
        glutSolidSphere(0.05,10,10)
        glTranslatef(-0.1, 0.0, 0.0)
        glutSolidSphere(0.05,10,10)
        glPopMatrix()

// Draw Nose
        glColor3f(red, green, blue)
        glRotatef(0.0,1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
        glutSolidCone(0.08,0.5,10,2)

        glColor3f(1.0, 1.0, 1.0)

func renderBitmapString x,y,z,font,string
        glRasterPos3f(x, y,z)
        for c in string
                glutBitmapCharacter(font,ascii(c))
        next

func renderStrokeFontString x,y,z,font,string
        glPushMatrix()
        glTranslatef(x, y,z)
        glScalef(0.002, 0.002, 0.002)
        for c in string
                glutStrokeCharacter(font, Ascii(c));
        next
        glPopMatrix()


func restorePerspectiveProjection

        glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION)
        // restore previous projection matrix
        glPopMatrix()

        // get back to modelview mode
        glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW)


func setOrthographicProjection

        // switch to projection mode
        glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION)

        // save previous matrix which contains the
        //settings for the perspective projection
        glPushMatrix()

        // reset matrix
        glLoadIdentity()

        // set a 2D orthographic projection
        gluOrtho2D(0, w, h, 0)

        // switch back to modelview mode
        glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW)



func computePos deltaMove

        x += deltaMove * lx * 0.1
        z += deltaMove * lz * 0.1


func renderScene

        if  deltaMove
                computePos(deltaMove)
        ok

        // Clear Color and Depth Buffers
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT)

        // Reset transformations
        glLoadIdentity()

        // Set the camera
        gluLookAt(      x, 1.0, z,
                        x+lx, 1.0,  z+lz,
                        0.0, 1.0,  0.0)

        // Draw ground

        glColor3f(0.9, 0.9, 0.9)
        glBegin(GL_QUADS)
                glVertex3f(-100.0, 0.0, -100.0)
                glVertex3f(-100.0, 0.0,  100.0)
                glVertex3f( 100.0, 0.0,  100.0)
                glVertex3f( 100.0, 0.0, -100.0)
        glEnd()

// Draw 9 SnowMen
        for i = -3 to -1
                for j = -3 to -1
                        glPushMatrix()
                        glTranslatef(i*10.0, 0.0, j * 10.0)
                        drawSnowMan()
                        number = (i+3)*3+(j+3)
                        renderBitmapString(0.0, 0.5, 0.0,font ,""+number)
                        glPopMatrix()
                next
        next

        // Code to compute frames per second
        frame++

        time=glutGet(GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME)
        if time - timebase > 1000
                s = "RingFreeGLUT - FPS: " + (frame*1000.0/(time-timebase))
                timebase = time
                frame = 0
        ok

        // Code to display a string (fps) with bitmap fonts
        setOrthographicProjection()

        glPushMatrix()
        glLoadIdentity()
        renderBitmapString(5,30,0,GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18,s)
        glPopMatrix()

        restorePerspectiveProjection()

        glutSwapBuffers()


// -----------------------------------
//             KEYBOARD
// -----------------------------------

func processNormalKeys
        key = glutEventKey()
        xx = glutEventX()
        yy = glutEventY()

        switch key
                on 27
                        glutDestroyMenu(mainMenu)
                        glutDestroyMenu(fillMenu)
                        glutDestroyMenu(colorMenu)
                        glutDestroyMenu(fontMenu)
                        Shutdown()
        off


func pressKey

        key = glutEventKey()
        xx = glutEventX()
        yy = glutEventY()

        switch key
                on GLUT_KEY_UP
                         deltaMove = 0.5
                on GLUT_KEY_DOWN
                        deltaMove = -0.5
        off


func releaseKey

        key = glutEventKey()

        switch key
                on GLUT_KEY_UP
                        deltaMove = 0
                on GLUT_KEY_DOWN
                        deltaMove = 0
        off


// -----------------------------------
//             MOUSE
// -----------------------------------

func mouseMove
        xx = glutEventX()
        yy = glutEventY()

        // this will only be true when the left button is down
        if xOrigin >= 0

                // update deltaAngle
                deltaAngle = (xx - xOrigin) * 0.001

                // update camera's direction
                lx = sin(angle + deltaAngle)
                lz = -cos(angle + deltaAngle)
        ok


func mouseButton

        button = glutEventButton()
        state = glutEventState()
        xx = glutEventX()
        yy = glutEventY()

        // only start motion if the left button is pressed
        if button = GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON
                // when the button is released
                if state = GLUT_UP
                        angle += deltaAngle
                        xOrigin = -1
                else
                        // state = GLUT_DOWN
                        xOrigin = xx
                ok
        ok


// -----------------------------------
//             MENUS
// -----------------------------------

func processMenuStatus

        status = glutEventStatus()

        if status = GLUT_MENU_IN_USE
                menuFlag = 1
        else
                menuFlag = 0
        ok


func processMainMenu

        // nothing to do in here
        // all actions are for submenus


func processFillMenu

        option = glutEventValue()

        switch option

                on C_FILL
                        glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT, GL_FILL)
                on C_LINE
                         glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT, GL_LINE)
        off


func processFontMenu

        option = glutEventValue()

        switch (option) {
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12
                on C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18
                        font = GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18
        off

func processColorMenu

        option = glutEventValue()

        switch option
                on C_RED
                        red = 1.0
                        green = 0.0
                        blue = 0.0
                on C_GREEN
                        red = 0.0
                        green = 1.0
                        blue = 0.0
                on C_BLUE
                        red = 0.0
                        green = 0.0
                        blue = 1.0
                on C_ORANGE
                        red = 1.0
                        green = 0.5
                        blue = 0.5
        off


func createPopupMenus

        fontMenu = glutCreateMenu(:processFontMenu)

        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_8_BY_13 ",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13 )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_9_BY_15",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15 )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10 ",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10  )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24  )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_HELVETICA_10 ",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10  )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_HELVETICA_12",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12  )
        glutAddMenuEntry("BITMAP_HELVETICA_18",C_INT_GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18  )

        fillMenu = glutCreateMenu(:processFillMenu)

        glutAddMenuEntry("Fill",C_FILL)
        glutAddMenuEntry("Line",C_LINE)

        colorMenu = glutCreateMenu(:processColorMenu)
        glutAddMenuEntry("Red",C_RED);
        glutAddMenuEntry("Blue",C_BLUE);
        glutAddMenuEntry("Green",C_GREEN);
        glutAddMenuEntry("Orange",C_ORANGE);

        mainMenu = glutCreateMenu(:processMainMenu)

        glutAddSubMenu("Polygon Mode", fillMenu)
        glutAddSubMenu("Color", colorMenu)
        glutAddSubMenu("Font",fontMenu)
        // attach the menu to the right button
        glutAttachMenu(GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON)

        // this will allow us to know if the menu is active
        glutMenuStatusFunc(:processMenuStatus)


// -----------------------------------
//             MAIN
// -----------------------------------

func main

        // init GLUT and create window
        glutInit()
        glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DEPTH | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGBA)
        glutInitWindowPosition(100,100)
        glutInitWindowSize(320,320)
        glutCreateWindow("RingFreeGLUT - Test - 9 SnowMan")

        // register callbacks
        glutDisplayFunc(:renderScene)
        glutReshapeFunc(:changeSize)
        glutIdleFunc(:renderScene)

        glutIgnoreKeyRepeat(1)
        glutKeyboardFunc(:processNormalKeys)
        glutSpecialFunc(:pressKey)
        glutSpecialUpFunc(:releaseKey)

        // here are the two new functions
        glutMouseFunc(:mouseButton)
        glutMotionFunc(:mouseMove)

        // OpenGL init
        glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST)
        glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE)

        // init Menus
        createPopupMenus()

        // enter GLUT event processing cycle
        glutMainLoop()

Screen Shots:

RingFreeGLUT RingFreeGLUT

RingOpenGL Extension

Ring 1.5 comes with RingOpenGL and support for the next versions

  • OpenGL 1.1
  • OpenGL 1.2
  • OpenGL 1.3
  • OpenGL 1.4
  • OpenGL 1.5
  • OpenGL 2.0
  • OpenGL 2.1
  • OpenGL 3.0
  • OpenGL 3.2
  • OpenGL 3.3
  • OpenGL 4.0
  • OpenGL 4.1
  • OpenGL 4.2
  • OpenGL 4.3
  • OpenGL 4.4
  • OpenGL 4.5
  • OpenGL 4.6

Example:

/*
        This sample is based on C Tutorials
        from :
                http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Cube-in-OpenGL
*/

load "freeglut.ring"
load "opengl21lib.ring"

// ----------------------------------------------------------
// Global Variables
// ----------------------------------------------------------
rotate_y=0
rotate_x=0

// ----------------------------------------------------------
// display() Callback function
// ----------------------------------------------------------
func display

  //  Clear screen and Z-buffer
  glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT)

  // Reset transformations
  glLoadIdentity()

  // Rotate when user changes rotate_x and rotate_y
  glRotatef( rotate_x, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 )
  glRotatef( rotate_y, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 )

  //Multi-colored side - FRONT
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)

  glColor3f( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 )     glVertex3f(  0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )      # P1 is red
  glColor3f( 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 )     glVertex3f(  0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )      # P2 is green
  glColor3f( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 )     glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )      # P3 is blue
  glColor3f( 1.0, 0.0, 1.0 )     glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )      # P4 is purple

  glEnd()

  // White side - BACK
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)
  glColor3f(   1.0,  1.0, 1.0 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5, -0.5, 0.5 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5,  0.5, 0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5, 0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5, 0.5 )
  glEnd()

  // Purple side - RIGHT
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)
  glColor3f(  1.0,  0.0,  1.0 )
  glVertex3f( 0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f( 0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f( 0.5,  0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f( 0.5, -0.5,  0.5 )
  glEnd()

  // Green side - LEFT
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)
  glColor3f(   0.0,  1.0,  0.0 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )
  glEnd()

  // Blue side - TOP
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)
  glColor3f(   0.0,  0.0,  1.0 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5,  0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5,  0.5,  0.5 )
  glEnd()

  // Red side - BOTTOM
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON)
  glColor3f(   1.0,  0.0,  0.0 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )
  glVertex3f(  0.5, -0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5,  0.5 )
  glVertex3f( -0.5, -0.5, -0.5 )
  glEnd()

  glFlush()
  glutSwapBuffers()


// ----------------------------------------------------------
// specialKeys() Callback Function
// ----------------------------------------------------------
func specialKeys

        key = glutEventKey()

  //  Right arrow - increase rotation by 5 degree
        switch Key

        on GLUT_KEY_RIGHT
                rotate_y += 5

        //  Left arrow - decrease rotation by 5 degree
        on GLUT_KEY_LEFT
                rotate_y -= 5

        on GLUT_KEY_UP
                rotate_x += 5

        on GLUT_KEY_DOWN
                rotate_x -= 5

        off

  //  Request display update
  glutPostRedisplay()



// ----------------------------------------------------------
// main() function
// ----------------------------------------------------------
func main

  //  Initialize GLUT and process user parameters
  glutInit()

  //  Request double buffered true color window with Z-buffer
  glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DEPTH)

  // Create window
  glutCreateWindow("Awesome Cube")

  //  Enable Z-buffer depth test
  glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST)

  // Callback functions
  glutDisplayFunc(:display)
  glutSpecialFunc(:specialKeys)

  //  Pass control to GLUT for events
  glutMainLoop()

  //  Return to OS

Screen Shot:

RingOpenGL

Better Code Generator for Extensions

The Code Generator is updated to support <constant> type, So we can have constants other than numbers, for example : Strings and Pointers.

When we have pointers we can determine the pointer type. To use this feature, before <constant> and </constant> we can use

$nDefaultConstantType = C_CONSTANT_TYPE_POINTER
$cDefaultConstantPointerType = "void *"

The next example from the RingFreeGLUT extension

<runcode>
        $nDefaultConstantType = C_CONSTANT_TYPE_POINTER
        $cDefaultConstantPointerType = "void"
</runcode>
<constant>
        GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN
        GLUT_STROKE_MONO_ROMAN
        GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15
        GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13
        GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10
        GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24
        GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10
        GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12
        GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18
</constant>

Better Documentation Generator for Extensions

The documentation generator for extensions is updated to generate a list of constants in the generated documentation

The previous versions provides the functions prototype only, Now we have the list of constants too.

Ring VM - Tracing Functions

In Ring 1.5 the next functions are added to Ring VM

  • RingVM_SetTrace(cCode)
  • RingVM_TraceData() –> aDataList
  • RingVM_TraceEvent() –> nTraceEvent
  • RingVM_TraceFunc() –> cCode
  • RingVM_ScopesCount() –> nScopes
  • RingVM_EvalInScope(nScope,cCode)
  • RingVM_PassError()
  • RingVM_HideErrorMsg(lStatus)
  • RingVM_CallFunc(cFuncName)

Example:

load "tracelib.ring"

ringvm_settrace("mytrace()")

see "Hello, world!" + nl
see "Welcome" + nl
see "How are you?" +nl
mytest()
new myclass { mymethod() }

func mytest
        see "Message from mytest" + nl

func mytrace
        see "====== The Trace function is Active ======" + nl +
                "Trace Function Name : " + ringvm_TraceFunc() + nl +
                "Trace Event : "
        switch ringvm_TraceEvent()
                on TRACEEVENT_NEWLINE           see "New Line"
                on TRACEEVENT_NEWFUNC           see "New Function"
                on TRACEEVENT_RETURN            see "Return"
                on TRACEEVENT_ERROR             see "Error"
                on TRACEEVENT_BEFORECFUNC       see "Before C Function"
                on TRACEEVENT_AFTERCFUNC        see "After C Function"
        off
        see nl +
                "Line Number : " + ringvm_tracedata()[TRACEDATA_LINENUMBER] + nl +
                "File Name   : " + ringvm_tracedata()[TRACEDATA_FILENAME] + nl +
                "Function Name : " + ringvm_tracedata()[TRACEDATA_FUNCNAME] + nl +
                "Method or Function : "
                if ringvm_tracedata()[TRACEDATA_METHODORFUNC] =
                                 TRACEDATA_METHODORFUNC_METHOD
                        see "Method"
                else
                        if ringvm_tracedata()[TRACEDATA_FUNCNAME] = NULL
                                see "Command"
                        else
                                see "Function"
                        ok
                ok
                see nl + Copy("=",42) + nl

class myclass
        func mymethod
                see "Message from mymethod" + nl

Output:

====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : After C Function
Line Number : 3
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ringvm_settrace
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 5
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
Hello, world!
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 6
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
Welcome
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 7
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
How are you?
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 8
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Function
Line Number : 8
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : mytest
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 12
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : mytest
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
Message from mytest
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 14
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : mytest
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : Return
Line Number : 8
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 43
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : Before C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : After C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : mymethod
Method or Function : Method
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 44
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : mymethod
Method or Function : Method
==========================================
Message from mymethod
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : Return
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : Before C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : After C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : Before C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : After C Function
Line Number : 9
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name : ismethod
Method or Function : Function
==========================================
====== The Trace function is Active ======
Trace Function Name : mytrace()
Trace Event : New Line
Line Number : 11
File Name   : test1.ring
Function Name :
Method or Function : Command
==========================================

Trace Library and Interactive Debugger

Ring 1.5 comes with the Trace Library and the Interactive Debugger

Using this library we can trace events, execute programs line by line, open the Interactive Debugger when an error happens or at breakpoints.

Example:

The next example uses a Breakpoint to open the Interactive Debugger!

load "tracelib.ring"

test1()

func test1
        x = 10
        see :test1 + nl
        t = 12
        BreakPoint()
        see "After breakpoint!" +nl
        see "t = " + t + nl
        see "End of program!" + nl

Screen Shots:

We have the Interactive Debugger at the Breakpoint!

Interactive Debugger

We can print the variables values

Interactive Debugger

We can change the variables values then continue execution

Interactive Debugger

We can run the Interactive Debugger in the Output Window

Interactive Debugger

More Syntax Flexibility

  • Using braces { } in Packages/Classes/Functions

Example:

load "stdlib.ring"

import mypackage

new myclass {
        myfunc()
}

package mypackage
{
        class myclass
        {
                func myfunc
                {
                        print("Hello, World!\n")
                }
        }
}
  • Using ‘end’ keyword after Packages/Classes/Functions

Example:

import mypackage

new myclass {
        myfunc()
}

package mypackage
        class myclass
                def myfunc
                        put "Hello, World!"
                end
        end
end
  • Using ‘endpackage’/’endclass’/’endfunc’ keywords after Packages/Classes/Functions

Example:

import mypackage

new myclass { myfunc() }

package mypackage
        class myclass
                func myfunc
                        see "welcome"  + nl
                endfunc
        endclass
endpackage

Type Hints Library

Ring 1.5 comes with the Type Hints library

Using this library we can add the type information to the source code which will be very useful for tools like

  • Code Editors
  • Static-Analysis

Example:

load "typehints.ring"

see sum(3,4) + nl ;
see sayHello("Mahmoud");

int func sum(int x,int y) {
        return x+y ;
}

string func sayHello(string name) {
        return "Hello " + name ;
}

The library is very powerful and support the User types (Classes) automatically!

Example:

load "typehints.ring"

import mypackage

test()  { main([:one,:two,:three]) }

myclass func test() {
        see "Testing User Types!" + nl
        return new myclass
}

package mypackage {
        public class myclass {
                public static void func main(list args) {
                        see "welcome" + nl
                        see args
                }
        }
}

Also You can use the types inside the code (not only the function prototype)

Example:

load "typehints.ring"

int     sum = sum(3,4)
string  msg = sayHello("Mahmoud")

see "Sum = " + sum + nl + msg + nl


int func sum(int x,int y) {
        return x+y ;
}

string func sayHello(string name) {
        return "Hello " + name ;
}

Rules:

  • To use the types in the function prototype, You must use ‘(‘ and ‘)’ around parameters
  • To use the types in the function code, You must set the variable value (Assignment).

Note

Ring is a dynamic language, No type checking will be done by the compiler.

Better Quality

Based on Ring usage every day in practical projects

Ring 1.5 is more stable and more productive!

We are adding features based on clear vision and practical needs.

Also the documentation is better.

What is new in Ring 1.5.1?

  • Better Documentation
  • StdLib - Factorial() function update
  • RingVM - Better code for clearing the stack in the Class Region.
  • Sample : 3D Cube (OpenGL) + Texture Image using GameLib (RingAllegro)

Source Code:

load "gamelib.ring"
load "opengl21lib.ring"

func main

        new GraphicsApp {
                start()
        }


class GraphicsApp from GraphicsAppBase

        TITLE = "Ring Cube"

        bitmap texture

        xrot = 0.0
        yrot = 0.0
        zrot = 0.0

        func loadresources

                bitmap = al_load_bitmap("ring.bmp")
                texture = al_get_opengl_texture(bitmap)

        func destroyResources

                al_destroy_bitmap(bitmap)

        func drawScene

                w = 800 h = 600
                ratio =  w / h

                glViewport(0, 0, w, h)
                glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION)
                glLoadIdentity()

                gluPerspective(45,ratio,1,100)
                glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW)
                glLoadIdentity()

                glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D)
                glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH)
                glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.5)
                glClearDepth(1.0)
                glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST)
                glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE)
                glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL)
                glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST)

                glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT)
                glLoadIdentity();
                glTranslatef(0.0,0.0,-5.0);

                glRotatef(xrot,1.0,0.0,0.0);
                glRotatef(yrot,0.0,1.0,0.0);
                glRotatef(zrot,0.0,0.0,1.0);

                glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture)

                glBegin(GL_QUADS)
                        // Front Face
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        // Back Face
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        // Top Face
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                        // Bottom Face
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        // Right face
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f( 1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f( 1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        // Left Face
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0, -1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) glVertex3f(-1.0, -1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0,  1.0)
                        glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) glVertex3f(-1.0,  1.0, -1.0)
                glEnd()

                xrot += 0.3
                yrot += 0.2
                zrot += 0.4


class GraphicsAppBase

        display event_queue ev timeout
        timer  redraw   = true

        FPS             = 60

        SCREEN_W        = 800
        SCREEN_H        = 600

        KEY_UP          = 1
        KEY_DOWN        = 2
        KEY_LEFT        = 3
        KEY_RIGHT       = 4

        Key = [false,false,false,false]

        TITLE = "Graphics Application"

        func start

                SetUp()
                loadResources()
                eventsLoop()
                destroy()

        func setup

                al_init()
                al_init_image_addon()
                al_set_new_display_flags(ALLEGRO_OPENGL)
                display = al_create_display(SCREEN_W,SCREEN_H)
                al_set_Window_title(display,TITLE)
                al_clear_to_color(al_map_rgb(0,0,0))
                event_queue = al_create_event_queue()
                al_register_event_source(event_queue,
                        al_get_display_event_source(display))
                ev = al_new_allegro_event()
                timeout = al_new_allegro_timeout()
                al_init_timeout(timeout, 0.06)
                timer = al_create_timer(1.0 / FPS)
                al_register_event_source(event_queue,
                        al_get_timer_event_source(timer))
                al_start_timer(timer)
                al_install_mouse()
                al_register_event_source(event_queue,
                        al_get_mouse_event_source())
                al_install_keyboard()
                al_register_event_source(event_queue,
                        al_get_keyboard_event_source())

        func eventsLoop

                while true
                        al_wait_for_event_until(event_queue, ev, timeout)
                        switch al_get_allegro_event_type(ev)
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_DISPLAY_CLOSE
                                exit
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_TIMER
                                redraw = true
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_MOUSE_AXES
                                mouse_x = al_get_allegro_event_mouse_x(ev)
                                mouse_y = al_get_allegro_event_mouse_y(ev)
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_MOUSE_ENTER_DISPLAY
                                mouse_x = al_get_allegro_event_mouse_x(ev)
                                mouse_y = al_get_allegro_event_mouse_y(ev)
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_MOUSE_BUTTON_UP
                                exit
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_KEY_DOWN
                                switch al_get_allegro_event_keyboard_keycode(ev)
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_UP
                                                key[KEY_UP] = true
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_DOWN
                                                key[KEY_DOWN] = true
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_LEFT
                                                key[KEY_LEFT] = true
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_RIGHT
                                                key[KEY_RIGHT] = true
                                off
                        on ALLEGRO_EVENT_KEY_UP
                                switch al_get_allegro_event_keyboard_keycode(ev)
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_UP
                                                key[KEY_UP] = false
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_DOWN
                                                key[KEY_DOWN] = false
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_LEFT
                                                key[KEY_LEFT] = false
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_RIGHT
                                                key[KEY_RIGHT] = false
                                        on ALLEGRO_KEY_ESCAPE
                                                exit
                                off
                        off
                        if redraw and al_is_event_queue_empty(event_queue)
                                redraw = false
                                drawScene()
                                al_flip_display()
                        ok
                        callgc()
                end

        func destroy

                destroyResources()
                al_destroy_timer(timer)
                al_destroy_allegro_event(ev)
                al_destroy_allegro_timeout(timeout)
                al_destroy_event_queue(event_queue)
                al_destroy_display(display)

        func loadresources

        func drawScene

        func destroyResources

Screen Shot:

Ring Cuve